John 19 Outline
– Jesus handed over to be crucified (John 19:1-16)
– The crucifixion of Jesus Christ (John 19:17-27)
– Jesus’ death (John 19:28-37)
– Jesus was buried in a new tomb in a garden (John 19:38-42)
John 19 Bible Study
In John 19:1-16, Pilate had Jesus flogged. After that, a twisted crown made of thorns was placed on the head of Jesus by the soldiers. The soldiers clothed Jesus in a purple robe and kept on saying, ‘Hail, King of the Jews!’ (John 19:3 KJV) while beating him with his friends. Pilate told the crowd that he find no charges to bring against Jesus. As soon as Jesus, who was in purple robe, came out, they shouted for him to be crucified. In turn, Pilate asked them to took Jesus and crucified him on the cross by themselves. The Jews replied that there is a law according to their Jewish religion that anyone who claim to be the son of God must die. Pilate went into the palace and asked Jesus where he comes from. When Jesus did not say a word in reply, Pilate asked him didn’t he know he has the authority to free or crucify him. Jesus replied that he will not have any authority if God didn’t give him and the ones who handed him over has greater sin. Pilate wanted to free Jesus but the Jews insisted that if he free Jesus, he will not be a friend of Caesar. Pilate brought out Jesus and sat on the seat of the judge at Stone Pavement, or Gabbatha after he heard what the crowd said. The crowd kept on shouting for Jesus to be crucified. The chief priests said they have no king except Caesar. Finally, Pilate commanded Jesus to be crucified on a cross. Flogging is a form of punishment in Rome. It is often used to induce the criminal to confess the crime. It was used to make the criminal weak so that he will die faster through crucifixion. Jesus was a pure and blameless lamb, who was crucified on the cross for our sins. If Jesus did not die for our sins, we will not receive forgiveness. It was the Jews that first rejected the message of Jesus, that the gift of salvation is open to everyone else in the world. The Jews wanted to kill Jesus because he claim to be the son of God. When Pilate know the real reason they charge Jesus, he became afraid. When Pilate said to Jesus didn’t he know he has the authority to set him free. Jesus answered he has no authority unless it is given to him from above. God determines who are the ones that will be put in authorities on different things on earth. Therefore, we must obey the authorities and the law (Hebrews 13:17). Jesus said the one who delivered him sins more. He is referring to the Jews. Pilate was under pressure by the Jews to sentence Jesus to death. He knew that it was wrong to crucify Jesus yet he gave in to the crowd because he want to maintain his job and lifestyle.
In John 19:17-27, Jesus was crucified at a place called the Skull, which is Golgotha in Aramaic. Jesus was crucified along with two criminals. One criminal was crucified on the left of Jesus while the other criminal was crucified on the right of Jesus. On top of the cross, there was a notice that says ‘JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS’ (John 19:19 KJV). Ths sign was written in Aramaic, Latin and Greek languages. The chief priest complained to Pilate that he should not write the sign as the King of the Jews but Pilate refused to change the sign because he has already written it. The soldiers divided Jesus’ clothes into 4 shares and cast lot on it. This fulfills the prophesy in Psalm 22:18. Jesus’ mother, the sister of his mother, Mary, Cleopas’ wife and Mary Magdalene. Jesus said to the disciple he loved, John and told him to take care of his mother for him. Ever since, the disciple had brought Jesus’ mother into his home. Jesus was crucified on behalf of the sins of humanity. Jesus ransom us with his life blood so that the barrier that prevent us from accessing God due to sin can be removed. Pilate was courageous to refused to change the sign that Jesus is the king of the Jews but this act did not prevent Jesus from being crucified. Jesus gave up everything so that he can come to the earth to die for our sins. He abandoned the riches and glory in heaven and came to earth to die for our sins. Even his clothes was taken by the soldiers and they cast lots of it. Jesus was not born in a rich family but he was born to the poor couple of Joseph and Mary in a manger. Jesus knew he will die and be gone away so he entrust his mother into the care of John. This shows that Jesus is caring to the end instead of being self centered.
In John 19:28-37, Jesus knew that he had finished doing his works on earth and he said ‘I thirst’ (John 19:28 KJV). Then, the soldiers soak a sponge into the wine vinegar and gave Jesus a drink. After Jesus drank it, he said ‘It is finished’ (John 19:30 KJV), bowed his head and died. Jesus said it is finished because he had completed his final commission on dying on the cross. The death of Jesus on the cross signifies that Jesus had already paid the full ransom for the sins the people of the whole world. Jesus died on the cross for our sins so that we don’t have to suffer eternal punishment in hell. By believing in Jesus, a person can be saved and receive eternal life. If you want to receive eternal life, you must confess your sins and repent otherwise the blood of Jesus will not cleanse your sins away. The soldiers broke the legs of the two criminals that were crucified along with Jesus so that they will die. However, they did not break the legs of Jesus because he was already deceased. This fulfills the prophesy that none of Jesus’ bones will be broken in Psalm 34:20. They did this because the Jews did not want any body to be left on the crucifix on the Sabbath day. One soldier used a spear to pierce the side of Jesus and blood and water came out. This is a symbol that Jesus used his blood to wash away our sins.
In John 19:38-42, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for permission to take Jesus’ body. He was a secret follower of Jesus because he was afraid of the Jews. Nicodemus used about 75 pounds of myrrh and aloes to anoint Jesus’ body. Joseph and Nicodemus wrapped Jesus in linen clothes along with the spices. They laid the body of Jesus in a new tomb in a garden.