Exodus 12 Bible Study


Exodus 12 Outline


– God gave Moses instruction regarding how to celebrate the Passover (Exodus 12:1-28)

– God killed all the firstborns of the Egyptians (Exodus 12:29-30)

– The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt on that night (Exodus 12:31-42)

– God gave Moses and Aaron regulations regarding the Passover restrictions (Exodus 12:43-51)



Exodus 12 Summary


God commanded Moses to instruct every man in the Israelite community to take a lamb for his family on the tenth day of the first month. God said this month will be the first month in the Jewish calendar. If it is a small household, they can share the lamb with the nearest neighbor. Moses is responsible for determining the number of lambs in accordance with how much a person eats. The Passover lamb must be 1 year old and without defect. The Passover lamb can be a sheep or goat. The lamb must be taken care until the 14th day of the first month.


They are to dip the hyssop branch into the blood of the Passover lamb and paint the blood on the tops and sides of the doorframes. The meat of the Passover lamb is to be roasted and not boiled or eaten raw. The roast meat of the Passover lamb should be eaten with bread made without yeast and bitter herbs. None of the meat of the Passover lamb should be left until morning. Anything that is remained from the Passover lamb should be burned with fire. The Passover is to be celebrated for 7 days from the 14th day of the first month to the 21st day of the first month.


The Israelites did as Moses has instructed them. On that night, the destroyer passed through Egypt and killed every firstborn of the Egyptians, from Pharaoh’s firstborn, prisoner’s firstborn, to the livestock’s firstborn. There was loud wailing everywhere in Egypt because there was someone dead in every house. Then, Pharaoh called in Moses and Aaron and commanded them to leave along with their flocks and herds and bless him.


The Egyptians urged the Israelites to quickly leave the country because they were afraid that they will all die if they stay. The Israelites carried the dough without yeast in kneading troughs wrapped in clothing on their shoulders. God made the Egyptians favorably disposed towards the Israelites so that they gave them the silver and gold articles that they have asked for. Six hundred thousand men left Egypt on foot along with the women and children. Large droves of livestock and other people went up with them. The Israelites settled in Egypt for 430 years and the Israelites left on that night.


God gave Moses and Aaron the Passover regulations. No foreigner can eat the Passover unless he is circumcised. The same goes for the alien and native born among the Israelite community. The meat must be eaten inside one house and it cannot be taken outside the house. No bone is to be broken on the Passover.



Exodus 12 Bible Study


1. Jesus is the lamb without blemish who sacrificed for our sins

The Israelites used lambs without blemish to celebrate the Passover. They also used hyssop brush to apply blood on the top and sides of the door frames. The Passover represents the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Just as none of the bones from the Passover lamb was broken, none of the bones of Jesus was broken. Jesus is the lamb without blemish. He never commits a single sin during his lifetime and he went to the cross to die for our sins as a spotless lamb. Jesus paid the price of our sins with his blood so that we can receive the forgiveness of our sins and be reconciled to the Father (Matthew 26:27-29). If you sin, you should confess your sin and ask God to forgive you and stop sinning. If you sin, there will no longer be any sacrifice left (Hebrews 10:26).


2. God is our savior

The Passover is a symbolic representation of God defeating the enemy, which was the Egyptians and setting his people free from bondage. Whenever you have problem, you should look to God and depend on him. Our enemy is Satan. Satan is always looking for weak people to attack and devour. Therefore, we must not leave any foothold for Satan to come into our lives (Ephesians 4:27). Satan is the principalities of the air (Ephesians 2:2). We must not confirm to any worldly standard because the world is under the dominion of Satan (Romans 12:2).


3. Obedience to God

In Exodus 12:27-28, the people bowed down and worshiped and did what Moses instructed them to do with obedience. Obedience to God is important. God wants us to be completely obedience to him. What he care is our obedient hearts regardless of your offering or what you do (1 Samuel 15:22). In John 15:14, those who love God will keep his commandments.