Exodus 22 Outline
– Old Testament laws regarding protection of property (Exodus 22:1-15)
– Old Testament laws regarding social responsibility (Exodus 22:16-31)
Exodus 22 Summary
Exodus 22:1-15 is the Old Testament laws regarding protection of property. A man must repay 5 cattle if he stole a cattle and 4 sheep if he stole a sheep.
In Exodus 22:1, A defender who kill a thief before sunrise is guilty of bloodshed.
In Exodus 22:2-3, a thief must sold himself if he cannot make restitution.
In Exodus 22:4, a thief must pay back double of the stolen animal.
In Exodus 22:5, a man who let his animal stray and graze at another man’s field must make restitution.
In Exodus 22:6, a person who start a fire on a thorn bush and it burn the nearby field must make restitution.
In Exodus 22:7-9, if a safekeeper lost the goods he safe keep to a thief, he must pay back whatever the judge demand. In case of an illegal possession, the one pronounced guilty by the judge must pay back double.
In Exodus 22:10-13, if a person safekeep an animal and it get injured or die or is taken when no one is looking, he must take an oath before the judge and the owner should not demand restitution anymore. If the animal was being attacked by a wild animal, he must bring the remains of the animal as evidence.
In Exodus 22:14-15, A man who borrow an animal who later become injured or die must make restitution. If the owner is present, the borrower don’t have to make restitution. If someone was hired to take care the animal, he will not recive his wage because the wage will be used to cover the loss.
Exodus 22:16-31 is the Old Testament laws regarding social responsibility.
In Exodus 22:16-17, a man who seduces a virgin must pay the bride price and marry her. If the father did not want her daughter to be married to the man, the man still has to pay the bride price.
In Exodus 22:18, a witch must be put to death.
In Exodus 22:19, anyone who have sex with an animal must be put to death.
In Exodus 22:20, don’t mistreat a foreigner.
In Exodus 22:21, don’t mistreat a widow or orphan.
In Exodus 22:22-24, lend to those who are needy without charging interest.
In Exodus 22:25-27, Don’t blasphemer God or curse your ruler
In Exodus 22:28, don’t hold back offerings.
In Exodus 22:29-30, give the firstborns of your sins and livestock to God.
In Exodus 22:31, Don’t eat meat of animal killed by wild beasts.
Exodus 22 Bible Study
1. Don’t steal
In the Old Testament laws, if you steal, you have to pay back several times. Stealing is a sin (Romans 13:9). There are many different types of stealing such as embezzlement, robbery, extorting, usury, kidnapping, negligence in safekeeping a neighbor’s property, not paying tax, overcharging, taking someone’s money without permission, and not paying tithe. In Ephesians 4:28, the thief should not steal anymore but work so that he can have something to share with others.
2. Be serious in the oath you make to God
in Exodus 22:11, if a livestock gets injured or die or is taken away when no one is looking, the safe keeper must take an oath along with the owner before God. If you make an oath to God, you must keep it. If you can’t keep the promise you make to God or other people, you should not make it in the first place. You should apologize to God or other people if you did not keep the promise. Swearing is a sin because you don’t know what is going to happen in the future (James 5:12).
3. Be responsible for your mistake
The Old Tetstament laws in Exodus 22:1-15 tells us to be responsible for our mistake. If you injure someone accidentally, you must not run away but see to it that he gets healed. If you do something wrong, you must face it and bear the consequence. If you offended someone, you must apologize to him and make any restitution possible. In Mark 11:25, when you stand praying, you must ask yourself whether you have hatred for anyone or offended anyone lately, if you do, you must forgive the offender and ask him for forgiveness so that the Father God will forgive your sins.
4. Witchcraft is a sin
In Exodus 22:18, don’t let a witch live. Witchcraft is of the devil. Christians cannot practice witchcraft. There are many different types of witchcraft such as necromancers, white magic, black magic, voodoo, fortune telling, palm reading, horoscope and etc. Practicers of witchcraft will not inherit the kingdom of God (Galatians 5:19-21).
5. Be kind and generous to the needy
In Exodus 22:22-27, we must be kind to the needy (Acts 20:35; Matthew 10:42; Matthew 6:21; Luke 12:33). The core principle of God’s commandment is to love others as much as you love yourself. If you see someone in need, you must help him. Jesus said give to those who ask from you and lend to those who want to borrow from you (Matthew 5:42). In Luke 6:38, give and it will be given back to you. In Proverbs 11:24-25, those who give freely will grow all the richer but those who withhold will have needs. In Proverbs 21:13, whoever who close his ear to the poor, when he pray, God will not listen.
6. Don’t curse God
In Exodus 22:28, don’t blaspheme God or curse the ruler. We must respect God and the authorities in our countries. Nowadays, many people like to blaspheme God by using vulgars words. Christians must be gentle and polite when speaking and not use vulgar words.
7. Give your tithe and offerings to God
In Exodus 22:29-30, don’t hold back your offerings and give your firstfruit to God. Christians must pay tithes to the church (Malachi 3:9). Tithe is the 10% of your income. Offerings are money or possessions given willingly for ministry use. The firstfruit is the whole income of the first month. If you give your firstfruit, God will bless you. In 2 Corinthians 9:7, each person should give what he has decided in his heart, not reluctantly or under compulsion because God loves a cheerful giver.
8. Having sex with animal is a sin
In Exodus 22:19, sex with animal is a sin. God created man to have sex with his wife, a woman(Genesis 2:24). Any kind of sexual immorality is a sin such as homosexuality, lesbian, incest, and etc.