Bible Study Outline on King David
King David was a King After God’s Own Heart
King David is one of the most famous king in ancient history and bible. David was a righteous king. He was faithful to God and always walk in his commandments except he committed adultery with Bathsheba on one occasion.
He was a king after God’s heart. In 1 Samuel 13:14, But now thy kingdom shall not continue: the LORD hath sought him a man after his own heart, and the LORD hath commanded him to be captain over his people, because thou hast not kept that which the LORD commanded thee.
Because he was faithful to God, God made him successful and helped him to conquer a lot of countries. Many nations paid tributes to David and were under him. David was the most faithful king out of all the kings of Israel and Judah.
God promised to let a descendant of David always sit on the throne provided that the kings and the people follow his commandments. In 1 Kings 9:5, then I will establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for ever, as I promised to David thy father, saying, There shall not fail thee a man upon the throne of Israel.
The Prophet Samuel Anointed David to be King of Israel
David came from a poor family background. He was descended from the family line of Perez, Boaz and Ruth. The son of Boaz and Ruth was Obed. Obed was the father of Jesse. Jesse was the father of David (Ruth 4:21-22). He was the youngest son of Jesse. Jesse had 8 sons and his three eldest sons were Eliab, Abinadab, and Shammah (1 Samuel 17:13).
Initially, God chose Saul to be king of Israel. Later, God rejected Saul to be king because he offered the burnt offering on the altar before waiting for Samuel to come. He waited for 7 days for Samuel, the time frame Samuel gave but he didn’t come. He was impatient and worry because his army was surrounded by numerous Philistines soldiers. Many of Saul’s soldiers had gone into hiding and the troops with him were trembling with fear (1 Samuel 13:1-15).
Smuel arrived just about at the time when Saul finished offering the sacrifices, He rebuked him and told him that God had already rejected him and chosen another man after his own heart to be the king of Israel. Although Samuel was sad about it, he never see Saul anymore from that time onward (1 Samuel 15).
One day, God told Samuel to go to the house of Jesse to anoint one of his sons to be king. When Samuel arrived, he saw the the eldest son of Jesse, Eliab, and thought he was the one chosen by God to be king because of his handsome appearance. However, God told him Eliab wasn’t the one chosen by him because he does not look at a man’s appearance but a man’s heart (1 Samuel 16:6).
David Defeats Goliath With a Sling Stone
The Philistines were involved in a war with the Israelites again. This time, Goliath, a giant Philisines soldier about 3 meter in height, came out to challenge the Israelites to choose a warrior to fight him. Goliath said if anyone is able to kill him, the Philistines will become his subjects. However, if he kill the warrior, the Israelites will become his subjects.
It happened that Jesse’s three sons, Eliab, Abinadab and Shammah had gone into war with Saul. Jesse was worried about them and he sent David along with some food supplies for the soldiers to ask abouttheir
conditions. After David arrived, he left the food supplies with the keeper and ran to the battle line to talk with his brothers. While talking with his brothers, Goliah came out to challenge the Israelites soldiers again like usual.
The Israelites soldiers were saying that the warrior that kill Goliah will be able to marry the king’s daughter and his family will never have to pay tax. David asked other soldiers twice to confirmed whether what they say concerning the reward was true and they all gave confirmation to him.
Someone heard what David was saying and reported to King Saul. David was then brought before Saul. David persuaded King Saul to let him fight Goliath. At first, Saul refused to let David fight Goliath because he was only a boy but Goliath was an experienced soldier. Later, Saul agreed after David told him how he rescued his father’s sheep from teh lions and bear when they attacked them. David was a shepherd for his father’s sheep.
Saul at first let David try on his armor but David was not used to it. Instead, he went to a nearby stream and picked 5 smooth stones and put them into his shepherd bag’s pouch. Goliath fought with his armor bearer in front. Goliath was armed with a sword, spear and javelin but David only armed himself with a sling and 5 pebbles. David believed that God will help him to defeat Goliath so that his name can be glorified. He think that Goliath deserved to die because he insulted the army of Israel, God’s chosen nation.
During war, David ran toward Goliah, reaching a stone from his bag and slung it toward his foreheard. The stone hit hard on Goliath’s forehead, cracked his skull and killed him. David then took Goliath’s sword and cut off his head. That day, God gave Israel victory against the Philistines. The Israelites chased after and killed the Philistines. When they returned, they plundered the Philistines’ camp. This account can be found in 1 samuel 17.
David Being Pursued by Saul
David worked as Saul’s army commander after he successfully defeated Goliath. Saul sent David on many military campaigns and he always win the war. Later, David was promoted to a high rank in the army. This made the troops, and Saul’s officers happy.
One day, as David and soldiers returned home from the war with the Philistines, the women came out to sing and dance with timbrels and lyres. They sang, “Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.” (1 Samuel 18:7) This made King Saul jealous and envy of David. He became afraid of David because he think he may get the kingdom and become king one day. From that time onward, Saul watched for opportunities to kill David.
King Saul had tried to kill David on many occasions. He tried to pin David to the wall with his spear twice but David managed to dodge. At one time, King Saul challenged David to fight the battles of the Philistines for him and he will give his oldest daughter, Merab, in marriage to him. But Saul’s purpose was to let the Philistines kill David.
Saul’s younger daughter, Michal liked David so Saul came up with an idea to challenge David to bring back 100 Philistines foreskins to marry her. David agreed and he immediately went out to kill 200 Philistines. He brought back their foreskins to David and gave themto Saul and Michal married him.
Saul had David’s house surrounded but David escaped with Michal’s help. David ran to Samuel’s house in Ramah. Saul sent men to capture David but the Spirit of God came on them and they prophesied. Finally, Saul went to Naoith in Ramah himself. When at Naioth in Ramah, the Spirit of God came on Saul and he stripped naked and lay down all day and night prophesying.
David got a loaf of sacred bread and Goliath’s sword from the priest Ahimelech. Doeg, the Edomite, Saul’s chief shepherd was there and he reported to Saul. Later, Saul killed Ahimelech and his family and all the priest and everyone in the city of the priest, Nob because he assumed that they sided with David.
David spared Saul’s life twice. At one time, Saul went into the same cave where David and his men were hiding. David went over to cut off the edge of Saul’s robe but did not kill him because Saul’s was God’s anointed king. David called out to Saul and told him about it when he and his men went out of the cave. On another occasion, Saul and his men were resting in a camp. David and his men sneaked in and stoled Saul’s spear and his water jug. Later, David called out from a hill top to Abner, Saul’s army commander and revealed to him about the lost spear and water jug he had taken.
David Recovered All that were captured from Ziklag
David was given the city Ziklag when he stayed with the Philistine king Achish. King Achish ordered David and his men to return instead of joining them in the war against the Israelites. This is because the officials were afraid of David siding with the Israelites. When he came back, they disovered that Ziklag was raided and its people were captured. David asked God whether he should go and attack the raiders and God replied he should. David and his men successfully defeated the raiders and bring back all the captives. They also took other possessions that belonged to the raiders.
David Committed Adultery with Bathsheba
David was strolling on his rooftop when he saw Bathsheba bathing below according to her religious ceremony. David fell in love with Bathsheba and he slept with her. Later, Bathsheba informed David that she is pregnant. When David received the news, he sent for Uriah, Bathsheba’s husband, who was fighting in war with Joab against the Ammonites. David asked Uriah to go home but he kept sleeping at the palace gates.
Finally, David sent him to eat a meal with him. Uriah did eat and drink but he still sleep at the palace gates later. Before David sent Uriah back, he gave him a letter, which contain a message to tell Joab to put Uriah at the front battle line so that he could be easily killed. Uriah died later and JOab reported back to David. As a punishment, God killed David and Bathsheba’s son. Later, they had another son called Solomon.
Amnon Raped King David’s Daughter
Amnon was the eldest son of King David. Amnon had a half sister called Tamar, whom he fell in love with. Amnon was frustrated to the point that he fell ill because he couldn’t have her. His friend, Jonadab, asked him why he looked so gloomy. When Jonadab found out that Amnon was ill because of his frustration over Tamar, he suggested to him to pretend to be sick and ask forhisfather King David to send Tamar to baked bread for him in the room. Amnon did as Jonadab suggested and asked his father King David to send for Tamar. King David agreed and Tamar went to Amnon’s house and baked bread for him. After Tamar finished baked the bread, she brought it to Amnon but Amnon would not eat it. Amnon ordered everyone to leave his presence.
When Tamar picked up the bread to feed Amnon again, Amnon grabbed her forcefully and raped her. Then, Amnon hated her more than he loved her. Tamar persuaded Amnon to ask King David for her hand in marriage but Amnon would not. After Amnon had raped her, he ordered his guards to throw her out of his house. Tamar tore the robe she was wearing and put her hands on her head and cried as she walked away. Absalom, Tamar’s full brother learned about it and was angry. Later, Tamar moved into Absalom’s house.
One day, Absalom decided to hold a feast and invite all the king’s son because he was shearing the wool of his sheep. At first, King David did not want his sons to go to Absalom’s feast but he changed his mind after that. Absalom had already instructed his servant to kill Amnon when he was drunk. They followed Absalom’s instruction and killed Amnon. When the other king’s sons learned about it, they fled on their mule back to the palace while Absalom fled to Geshur in Aram. Later, Joab hired a widow to persuade King David to bring Absalom back and King David listened to him.
Absalom Raped King David’s Concubines
In the course of time, Absalom got himself a chariot and horses and with fifty men to run in front of him Everyday, he would ride the chariot to the road leading to the city gate. The people brought their cases to King David must enter through this city gate. Absalom would tell the people if only he is appointed as judge, he will surely give them a fair trial. Whenever anyone approached Absalom, Absalom would reach out his hand to take hold of him and kiss him. Absalom kept doing this until everyone like him very much.
After 4 years, Absalom requested King David to let him go to Hebron to worship God. His excuse was that he wanted to go to Hebron to worship God and thank him for bringing him back from Aram after fleeing for murdering his half brother, Amnon. The real motive of Absalom was to steal his father’s kingdom away from him. Meanwhile, Absalom had already sent messengers throughout Israel to proclaim him as king in Hebron when they hear the trumpet sound. When David learned about this, he and his men fled.
Two advisers left behind including Ahitophel and Hushai. Ahitophel was on the side of Absalom and Hushai was on the side of King David. It was Hushai who suggested to Absalom to lead the whole army of Israel to fight King David. Ahitophel, on the other hand, suggested that he choose some men to go and capture King David only but Absalom did not listen to his plan. Ahitophel was the one that suggested to Absalom to sleep with King David’s concubine on the rooftop because doing so signify he is in authority. In the end, Absalom’s hair got stucked in the tree bough and his mule ran away, leaving him hanging in the midair. Joab and other men stucked their spears through him and killed him. David was very sad when he learned that his son, Absalom, had died.